The Karate Masters of Tatsuo Shimabuku
Thesis for Nidan
Craig J. Flaherty, Shodan
Isshinryu Karate Do - Stamford Dojo
This thesis offers a history of the life and career of Chotoku Kyan, Chojun Miyagi, and Choki Motobu. I wrote this essay to gain a better understanding of Soke Tatsuo Shimabuku by studying the masters from whom master learned and whom master honored in the patch of Isshinryu Karate Do.
The research for this essay was predominantly conducted using the Internet, from which I downloaded dozens of articles, essays, and descriptions. The accuracy of the data is, at some times, suspect. Material can be posted on the Internet without the benefit of data checking and editor-correction. I have done my best to patch together multiple sources to find the closest truth between the lines. I also used two books: Okinawa's Complete Karate System by Michael Rosenbaum and Okinawan Karate by Mark Bishop.
“Chotoku Kyan: Effort is everything.” This is the title of a paper by Roberto Marquetti which, I feel, best sums up the material that I have reviewed concerning Chotoku Kyan. Throughout his life, Master Kyan overcame adversity. Whether his obstacles were physical, financial, personal, political, or the flesh and blood of a larger adversary, Master Kyan continued along the path as Bujin.
Master Chotoku Kyan was born in December of 1870 in Gabo Village, Shuri, Okinawa. At the time Shuri was the capital of Okinawa. The Kyan family were 11th descendents to King Shosei of the Ryukyu Kingdom (made up of Okinawa and surrounding islands). Chotoku's father, Chofu was a steward to the last king of the Ryukyu Kingdom, Sir Shotai, and a trusted member of the Royal staff. Chotoku was born into a potentially easy life, but times were changing. The Meiji Restoration was underway. The ruling Meiji government of Japan abolished all royalty and aristocracy in Okinawa in 1872. In 1879 King Shotai was removed from Okinawa and forced to reside in Tokyo. The King brought with him 90 members of his staff including Chofu Kyan. Chotoku joined his father in Tokyo at the age of 12 and stayed through the age of 16 returning to Okinawa when Chofu's services to the King had ended. Chofu was a well-educated man familiar with both Japanese and Chinese literature. Chotoku received an education in Chinese classical literature.
Chotoku was born a frail and sickly child and grew up to be a small and slight man. His father desired to improve his son's health and toughen him up. To this end, Chofu began an exercise regiment with his son when he was five years old. They practiced empty-handed self-defense outside in the heat of summer and cold of winter. Chotoku's father, grandfather, and others began to teach him various martial arts including sumo and tote. It is also reported that Chofu did not have the heart to train his son properly and left the hard aspects of training to others.
Chotoku returned to Okinawa at the age of sixteen and lived in the Takaraguchi district of Naha. Chofu was encouraged by his son's competitive spirit and sought out some of the greatest masters of the day to train his son. Still affording the benefits of his social status Chotoku was able to study with Sokon Matsumura and his student Anko Itosu of Shuri. Sokon Matsumura was body guard to the last three successive kings of Ryukyu. One of the kata learned by Chotoku during his training with Matsumura was Seisan. Chotoku also trained with Kokan Oyadomari, Kosaku Matsumora, and Peichin Maeda of Tomari. Of note to Isshinryu practitioners, he learned Wansu from Maeda and Chinto from Kosaku Matsumora. The term Peichin is an Okinawan feudal title bestowed upon a Samurai by a lord for distinguished services rendered.
By this time, the Kyan family financial situation was worsening. Chofu's service to the previous King had ended and the Meiji government of Japan stripped the family of title and stipend in a continuing effort to eliminate the aristocratic past of Okinawa. The family moved to Yomitan village. Chotoku would spend the rest of his life in poverty, cultivating silk worms and hauling a cart. Kyan continued his training in Yomitan with a Tote expert named Chantan Yara from whom he learned Kusanku. Later, Chotoku would visit the island of Yaema to learn Tokumine No Kun as created by banished Peichin Tokumine.
When Chotoku was younger and trained with his father, his father is quoted as saying to his son, “You're small but have a competitive spirit, Chotoku. Even though you do not have the body of a marital artist, you can still develop effective technique depending entirely on how diligently you train yourself. You can be second to none, if you develop the technique suitable for a person of your body size, and master the application of the kata.”
Chotoku did exactly that. Spending considerable time training and refining his techniques to fit his body type, Chotoku was recognized as an expert in Shuri-te and Tomari-te. He spent much time focusing on footwork as well as kicks. As a small man he believed it was a disadvantage to retreat against a larger adversary. If one retreats against a larger opponent, the larger man still has the advantage of reach. Similarly, Chotoku was aware that a well skilled and larger opponent could potentially deliver a more devastating technique and, therefore, developed his style to avoid trading punches. Chotoku would practice with his back to a wall or a river to train his mind that retreat was not an option. Moving forward on a 45 degree angle was favored. This allows a smaller karateka to avoid, deflect, or block a direct attack at the same time closing the distance for an aggressive technique. Defense is then followed by immediate, accelerated, and accurate attack. Consequently, it is reported that Chinto was one of his favorite kata and he practiced it at a 45 degree angle to the kata line.
Due to his renown and size, Kyan was challenged often. One frequently repeated story is of a fight with a large man named Matsuda. Kyan was around 40 years old at this time. Matsuda voiced his opinion that Kyan, as an educated karate master, knew nothing of real fighting in the streets. Matsuda declared he would prove his point by defeating Kyan. The fight occurred at the edge of Hija River. Kyan stood in a natural stance with his back to the river. When Matsuda attacked to the body, Kyan evaded the attack and countered with a kick to Matsuda's thigh that sent him into the river.
Another challenge came when Chotoku Kyan was 60 years old. In 1930, a sixth degree black belt in Judo name Ishida challenged Kyan in Taiwan. Kyan removed his gi top and fought in his under shirt so as not to give the judoka clothing to grip. Reportedly, there was some time spent by each opponent measuring each other attempting to gain a sense of kakei. In an instant, Kyan thrust his thumb in to Ishida's mouth and wrenched his cheek while executing a leg technique to the knee or foot knocking Ishida to the ground. Kyan followed him down and deliver a devastating strike to the neck or body. The strike was focused so as not to deliver damage to his opponent. Ishida conceded the match immediately and requested and received karate instruction from Kyan.
“To be good at mastering karate, you have to practice hard and you should not depend too much on your physique, 70% effort and 30% physique.”
- Chotoku Kyan
“Effort to continue the practice is the most important and the best way to succeed. It is not a question of physique, but of effort.”
- Chotoku Kyan
“A mastery of karate does not depend on the learner's physical constitution, but mainly on constant practice.”
- Chotoku Kyan
Effort is everything. Outcome is irrelevant. For me, this offers an awareness of the moment.
Aside from his style of defense and attack, Kyan also adapted his style in other ways.
In Okinawan Karate authored by Mark Bishop it is reported that Kyan taught an adaptation of the standing fist. He advised his students to use this punch when striking the upper parts of someone taller than oneself. In Effort is Everything authored by Roberto Marquetti, he discusses Kyan taking considerable time developing his rising punch. In an interview with Zenpo Shimabukuro conducted by the Dragon Times, Zenpo states, `Kyan sensei did not use the full twist punch but a three quarter twisting punch'. These three references hint at the possible use of the vertical fist by Kyan. There were no descriptions of the technique other than what is described above. There is potential that Tatsuo Shimabuku may have seen this while training with Kyan. Certainly, Tatsuo would have learned from Kyan to adapt his techniques to fit his body type as well as his opponent.
Kyan taught karate in Kadena where he lived. This is where Tatsuo learned from him. In `Masters of the Shorin-ryu', an article printed in the Journal of Combative Sport, Graham Noble discussed Kyan training students with their top removed so he could examine the musculature as it contracted and relaxed to determine if the students were performing the techniques properly. Today in Isshinryu we perform Sanchin with our tops off for a similar reason.
Finally, an obstacle too large for Master Kyan to overcome took his life … his pride. He died of starvation in 1945 after years of difficult times on Okinawa during the war and reportedly giving food to his children instead of taking it for himself.
From Kyan, Tatsuo learned the empty handed kata Seisan, Naihanchi, Wansu, Chinto, and Kusanku. Tatsuo also started his Kobudo training with Kyan and, based on Kyan's teachers, probably learned Chantan Yara no Sai and Tokumine no Kun from Kyan. He learned a hard form of karate characterized by hard blocking and quick movement. He learned to adjust his techniques to fit his body type and his opponent's weaknesses. Tatsuo spent the most time studying with Kyan and became one of Kyan's most outstanding students. Kyan's Shorinryu, therefore, has the greatest influence on Tatsuo's style. In some histories, Isshinryu is listed as a subset of Shorinryu.
Chojun Miyagi was born in Naha on April 25, 1888. His uncle had no son for a successor and adopted him, giving him the name Chojun Miyagi. His new family is said to be wealthy, providing Chojun with the means and time to study karate. Chojun began his karate training at the age of 14 with Kanryo Higaonna.
To understand Miyagi's training it is necessary to understand a bit about his master. Higaonna learned Naha-te from Seisho Aragaki whose style was heavily influenced by Chinese boxing, Chuan Fa. Higaonna then trained in Fuchou, China. China offers two sides to the study of empty handed fighting. On one side, there are the hard or external styles derived from Shaolin Chun. On the other, there are soft or internal styles similar to Tai Chi. Apparently, while in China Higaonna studied a style called Fukien White Crane Chang which was a combined school of White Crane of Southern Shaolin Crane (hard) and Five Ancestor Chang (soft). Higaonna's training in Fuchou is said to be severe and grueling. He became well known for having a mastery of the style taught by Ryu Ryu Ko, the founder of the Whooping Crane system. This connection plays a critical role in the development of Chojun Miyagi's system.
Chojun Miyagi is quoted as saying, “My Sensei possessed incredible strength; the severity of the training he underwent in china is beyond comprehension…Kanryo Sensei's speed and power were truly superhuman; his hands and feet moved faster than lightening.” Miyagi's training under Higaonna was equally as severe as the training Higaonna had received with great focus on running and strength exercises. Miyagi trained diligently to emulate the skills of his teacher. It is said that he practiced so hard that he sometimes passed out performing Sanchin kata.
After three years of training Miyagi was approaching the age of 17. He would be required to fulfill a duty to serve in the Japanese military. Since Japan had somewhat recently (1890's) began to extend this law to Okinawa, there was resentment held by many people in Okinawa who were used to living under their own feudal rule prior to 1879. Many also held an allegiance to China having direct, ancestral, or business ties with China. It was not unusual for young men to evade service at this time by leaving the country. Miyagi traveled to Fuchou, China - to the same city in which his sensei had lived in.
Chojun originally sought out Higaonna's instructors in the city, but was unsuccessful. He found living alone in a foreign city difficult. His parents were able to support him for a few years before Chojun had to return to Okinawa and fulfill his military obligation in 1908.
Chojun continued to train with Higaonna becoming his favored student until Higaonna died in 1915. Chojun paid for his funeral, thus demonstrating his filial respect for Higaonna. Once again he set out for Fuchou city in China to search for instructors of Fukien White Crane. Fuchou was not a hospitable place for foreigners at this time as they were attempting to reject forms of western government including the Japanese government. Miyagi was able to study sporadically with a few teachers.
Upon his return to Okinawa, Miyagi began teaching students at his home in Naha. Miyagi would discuss for hours his knowledge and views of karate, Buddhism, and his philosophy. This most likely included material learned from his and his sensei's study of Fukien White Crane and discussion of the “Eight Poems of the Fist” as found in a book entitled “Bubishi” which described the style. Miyagi used a favored phrase from this poem to describe the methods he was teaching. The translated third line reads as follows, “… the way embraces hard and soft, inhaling and exhaling.” “Goju” is the pronunciation of hard and soft. Miyagi used to say, “Goju is the willow tree blown by the strong wind.” The willow tree has a solid base, its branches may be blown by the wind but do not directly resist the wind. This way, the energy of the wind does not destroy the tree.
The genesis of the name Gojuryu was a matter of happenstance. It occurred as Chojun's main disciple Jin-an Shinzato was asked for a name at a National Athletic Meeting in Tokyo. Miyagi ultimately approved Shinzato's use of the name Gojuryu.
Miyagi lived his life practicing the essence of Goju. Described by some as having “The body of a bull and the spirit of a saint.” His students remember him as a strict teacher and gentle man. Genkai Nakaima who wrote, “His kindness is infinite. He preaches morality.” And “I still remember his bright face with sharp eyes in which I find the true karate master's love and kindness.”
Chojun Miyagi's life of training, study, instruction, and demonstration eventually receive wide notoriety and stature as evidenced by this abbreviated resume:
1921: Miyagi performs Naha-te for crown prince Hirohito.
1925: Miyagi presents Naha-te to prince Chichibu.
1926: Co-founds the Karate Research Club.
1929: Miyagi names Gogen Yamaguchi leader of Goju Ryu in Japan.
1929: Miyagi becomes Shihan of Okinawan Police and the Naha School of Commerce.
1930: Miyagi becomes the Chairman of the Karate Division of the Okinawan Prefecture Athletic Association.
1934: Miyagi writes `An Outline of Karate-Do'
1936: Miyagi is awarded a medal for “Excellence in the Martial Arts”
1937: Miyagi co-founds the Great Japan Martial Arts Karate Teachers Association.
1937: Miyagi receives a doctorate degree in karate.
From Miyagi, Tatsuo learned the empty handed kata Seiuchin and Sanchin. He learned a style of karate that embodied the forces of hard and soft. Hip and body rotations are prevalent in the style and serve to balance the movement of aggressive techniques and deflect an opponent's aggressive techniques. Tatsuo learned that there are times that soft is advantageous and times that hard is advantageous and at times they could be used together.
Choki Motobu was born in 1871 in Akahira village in the Shuri region of Okinawa. He was the third son of Choshin Motobu, a high ranking lord and the sixth descendent of the Okinawan King Sho Shitsu. It has been reported that he was not the son of his father's first wife, but of a mistress with whom Choki grew up. The Motobu family had developed and passed down their particularly effective style of fighting or ti through generations of Motobu men.
From a young age Choki was obsessed with learning how to fight. Being the third son he not only had older brothers who were bigger than him, but he also was never equal to or favored like the eldest son. The first son, Choyu, was chosen to learn the family art of ti. This served to heighten Choki's desire to train. He began by imitating what he could spy of his brother's training and hitting the makiwara at a very young age.
Choki was a strong, fast, agile, and tough child whose ability to climb trees gained him the nickname Saru (or Monkey). As he grew and continued to train he worked himself every day lifting weights and punching the makiwara. Picking up pieces of his brother's training could only take Choki so far. Choki began training with Anko Itosu, the man who eventually brought karate training to the Okinawan school system.
Still Choki was less concerned with schooling or learning karate for betterment of the body, mind, and spirit. He wanted to learn effective ways of fighting. Around the age of twenty, Choki began venturing into the red light district intending to get into street fights to test his strength and skill. In street fights, Choki found his desired dojo and honed is skills as a fighter.
Unfortunately, his penchant for fighting was reported back to Itosu. For this reason, and Choki's attitude in the dojo, Itosu dismissed Choki from his instruction. Motobu felt he needed to challenge people in order to prove himself. It was this attitude that discouraged many masters of the day from teaching him.
After Itosu, it is reported that Motobu studied with Tokumine who was particularly good with a bo. Motobu apparently paid Tokumine his tuition with sake as Tokumine was a drinker. This arrangement lasted until Tokumine was banished to an island for having bested many policemen in a fight. Tokumine is known for passing his bo kata to many students.
One master who chose to take on Choki despite his reputation was Kosaku Matsumora. One story tells of Choki using his mother's maiden name of Sesoko instead of Motobu in order to gain acceptance to the dojo. Soon after, Matsumura realized the true identity of Choki and allowed him to stay anyway. Matsumura concentrated on teaching Motobu kata, and kept him from sparring in order to calm him down and re-center his karate study on health and spirit. This did not discourage Motobu from spying on shiai in the dojo.
Choki also studied at times with his brother Choyu, learning the family style, which is known today as Motobu Udun Ti or Gotente and is characterized by its grappling and striking. Always, his brother bested Choki.
In the early 1920's Motobu traveled to Osaka, Japan in search of work. He found a job as a security guard. One day in November of 1924, his landlord brought a sign to Choki's attention (some say in jest). The sign advertised a challenge match with western boxers in Kyoto. Motobu, always interested in learning the strengths and limitations of karate and having a desire to prove himself, accepted the challenge.
The details of the event vary. Generally, it seems that Motobu took a defensive stance in the bout, biding his time for a good strike opportunity against his much larger opponent. He found his opening anywhere between the first and third round depending on the source and fell his opponent with one clean technique. The technique was most likely one Choki's favorite, the one knuckle fist strike or keikoken, also known as the Dragon's Eye from the Shaolin five-animal form. It was placed to the side of the head and, depending on the source landed either on the temple or behind the ear. Other accounts claim the strike was an open palm to the face just below the nose. It is also worth mentioning that Choki was over age fifty when this fight occurred.
This match was a turning point in Motobu's life as a karatake. Almost immediately, Choki was regarded as a master and as word spread of the event, people would search him out for training. Choki's teaching style was focused, as he was, on effective fighting techniques. He used a more practical, natural stance. Kata were not at the center of the teachings as they are in so many other styles. He did teach some kata, although, it seems that some students would never get beyond Naihanchin, which Choki spent considerable time practicing and teaching. He would focus on all aspects of the kata and especially on the bunkai and how kata related to a real fighting.
Eventually, in 1927 Choki Motobu moved to Tokyo where Gichin Funakoshi was already teaching karate. Gichin is typically referred to as the founder of modern day karate for the popularization of his style within Japan and around the world. Gichin was an academic type who organized his program concisely and approached karate from an entirely different direction than Motobu. Gichin taught kata and looked down upon Motobu's fighting. Motobu felt that Gichin was teaching `pretend' karate. There are numerous reports of tension and perhaps altercation between these two men, which cannot be conclusively substantiated. Ultimately, Choki's inability to speak or write Japanese and Gichin's connections and fastidious attention to teaching and Japanese culture would dictate who would spawn the most popular style.
As he aged, it seems Choki matured greatly. His friends and acquaintances in later life report Choki as being a gentle, quiet man who would not provoke trouble. For all of his differences, Choki was a respected karate master of the day. He attended a gathering of Okinawan karate masters in 1936 with the likes of Chotoku Kyan and Chojun Miyagi among others. The topic of the meeting was the standardization and future of karate. It was at this meeting when the name karate was officially decided to translate to “empty hand” instead of “Tang hand” (a reference to its Chinese origins).
The following quotes are attributed to Choki Motobu:
“In a real confrontation, more than anything else, strike to the face first as this is most effective.”
“When punching to the face one must thrust as if punching through the head.”
“When blocking kicks, one must block as if trying to break the opponents shin.”
“One must try and block the attack at its source.”
These quotes are a fitting way to demonstrate Motobu's focus on technique.
From Motobu, Tatsuo learned efficient and effective fighting techniques. This plays an important role in the development of Isshinryu and the modifications that Tatsuo begins to make to his prior body of knowledge. Dr. William Durbin notes the importance of this link in a paper on Choki Motobu. Dr. Durbin concludes that `many modern systems which have been derived from these previously mentioned ones [includes Isshinryu] … owe much of the reality of their training, and the practice of Kumite, to Choki Motobu.
It is widely reported that Tatsuo Shimabuku spent the most time with Chotoku Kyan and that Kyan is his greatest influence. Whereas Kyan influenced the man, it seems evident that each master played a more equal and significant role in sowing the seeds of Isshinryu. For it is the cross-pollination of the three teaching styles, and Tatsuo, that create this hybrid. Remove any one master and a different style is born. Thus, the three stars appear equally, and without emphasis, or favor, on the patch. And the three stars form, as some say, the kanji for one, which is Isshinryu.
Isshinryu tends to be more `practical' in use. It is characterized by higher stances, lower kicks, and quicker, upright punches. This attention to effectiveness is related to Choki Motobu's influence as Tatsuo's last teacher of empty handed fighting techniques. Tatsuo had learned more definitive styles from Kyan and Miyagi. With Kyan, he learned a hard form, quick moving, and traditional Okinawan karate. Tatsuo learned from Miyagi softer movements, deeper stances, and more deflective moves from a style of karate with strong Chinese influences. From Motobu, Tatsuo learned the application of techniques in real fighting.
Tatsuo had incredible skill and knowledge by the time he began training with Motobu. Motobu's style focused his students on effective fighting. This influence is found in the modifications Tatsuo makes to his prior training that distinguish Isshinryu from other styles.
Arsenio Advincula has said that Isshinryu is about being in the middle. In a fight, if your stances are too upright, you may be easy to unbalance. Conversely, if you are in a deep stance, you may be too slow. In the middle, you can take advantage of the stability of a deeper stance as well as the speed of a more upright stance and you have the ability to move back and forth between the two extremes to fit the moment.
Advantage, in a real fight, exists most prevalently in the first strike. While using a full twisting punch may deliver a powerful technique, an upright jab to the face, throat, or temple can be executed more quickly and with devastating results. All karateka learn the following phrase: there is no first strike in karate. This is a valuable adage to preach the art for use in self-defense and not aggression. However, if there is going to be a first strike, you better make sure your strike connects before your opponent's, and that the strike is of proper force and accuracy to damage, shock, delay, or immobilize your opponent.
These two examples of the Isshinryu standing fist and the tendency towards higher stances illustrate how Tatsuo begins to break from his teachers towards techniques that he found more effective.
By 1953, all of Tatsuo's teachers had passed away. Up until this point, he had taught others mostly the Shorinryu style taught to him by Kyan, but continued to practice all of what he had learned during his study of martial arts and even began working on his own kata. He received needed inspiration from the deity Megami who visited Tatsuo in a dream and encouraged him to start is own style. By doing this, Tatsuo would follow in the footsteps of his teachers.
Kyan, Miyagi, and Motobu each learned from multiple predecessors and modified what they learned to suit their body type, interest, or focus and then passed it on to more who wished to learn. This flexible attitude toward the study of martial arts seems at odds with Funikoshi's popular style of Shotokai karate. This attitude may be the cause of the many decentralizing offshoots of Isshinryu Karate here in the States. Some see this as a detriment to the promotion and future of our style as it is impossible to speak with one clear voice about the exact techniques of Isshinryu. This is also one of its biggest advantages.
In a dojo, you may encounter a male student that is 6' 6” and 280 pounds and a female student that is 5-4” and 120 pounds. This is only a physical manifestation of some of the differences in personality, character, and experience that exist in students of karate. As a student and teacher, it is necessary to be flexible in teaching these two vastly different body types to help them understand their strengths and weaknesses and to learn techniques that work best for them.
The only thing constant is change. Tatsuo studied Shorinryu with Kyan, then Gojuryu with Miyagi, then fighting techniques with Motobu, then weapons with Shinken Taira. He `started' Isshinryu in 1954 and through out his life continued to analyze the techniques and was known to tweak different pieces of Isshinryu over the years. Master Shimabuku was a student of martial arts who never stopped learning.
I stated in the beginning that I wrote this paper to gain a better understanding of Soke Tatsuo Shimabuku. As has been true during my study of karate over the years, my quest for knowledge has netted me a greater understanding of myself. I see more clearly that all I learn is a part of me and is, therefore, a part of my Isshinryu. I see that the study of other arts can help to make my study of Isshinryu stronger. These could be tangential like dance, yoga, or qigong; or more related like judo, escrima, or Kung Fu. It is my belief that Tatsuo would agree.
“Masters of the Shorin-ryu: Chotoku Kyan.” Graham Noble. 1986, 2000.
Brattleboro School of BuDo, Web Page. “Chotoku Kyan's Way.”
International Okinawan Shorin-Ryu, Web Page. 2000, IOSSKA.
Okinawan Karate Research Centre, Web Page. “Chotoku Kyan.”
Burlington Shorin-Ryu, Web Page. “Chotoku Kyan.”
“Chotoku Kyan: Effort is Everything.” Roberto Marquetti.
“Kyan Chotoku (Part 1 of 2).” Travis Cottreau.
“The Karate of Chotoku Kyan - Interview with the Seibukan's Zenpo Shimabukuro.” Dragon Times, 2003.
Mississippi Isshin-Ryu Karate, Web Page. “Chojun Miyagi.”
“Choki Motobu.” The Coslet's Karate Newletter. September, 1992
Noble, Graham. “Master Choki Motobu: A Real Fighter.” Dragon Times, 2003.
Ross, Tom. “Choki Motobu: Through The Myth…To the Man.” Fighting Arts .com Magazine.
Mississipi Isshin-ryu Karate, Web Page. “Choki Motobu.” Dr. William Durbin,
“The Legend of Choki Motobu.” translated by Sanzinsoo.
Cornell Watson's Web Site. “Lineage”.
“Secret Treasure of Okinawan Karate.” Dragon Times.
Nakaima, Genkai. “Memories of My Sensei, Chojun Miyagi.” Translated by Sanzinsoo.
The Family Karate Center, Web Page. “Grandmaster Chojun Miyagi.”
IKGA Canada, Web Page. “Chojun Miyagi.”
Bishop, Mark. “Okinawan Karate.” Tuttle Publishing, 1999.
Rosenbaum, Michael. “Okinawa's Complete Karate System.” TMMA Publication Center, 2001.